Refinery Waterborne Shipping 101 | RefinerLink
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Refinery Waterborne Shipping 101

By Miles Hoyer

Mar 25, 2020
 

A summary explanation of key Shipping basics that every refiner should know.

 
 

While railcars and trucks have increased as methods of shipping oil in the last few years, waterborne refineries continue to find barges and tankers as efficient means to balance supply and demand.

 


 

The discussion below walks through some commonly discussed shipping considerations to help refinery coordination, supply and trading teams increase fluency in marine management.

 

Right Size Your Fleet

 

Chartering

 

The act of hiring a ship or barge to carry cargo is called chartering. There are four types of charter agreements:

 

 
  • Voyage Charter – Charterer rents vessel from loading port to discharge port.
  • Time Charter – Vessel hired for a set period of time, to perform voyages as directed by charterer. Charterer generally pays for daily rate, port costs and voyage expenses.
  • Bareboat Charter- Charterer operates and manage ship, include responsibilities such as hiring crew and vessel maintenance.
  • Contract of Affreightment (COA) – Charterer specifies total volume of cargo to be carried in specific time period and in specific sizes.


Size

 

Certain delivery points and dock limitations (ie. draft, loading arms, berth length) may require refiners or traders to tailor with the proper size barges and tankers. Therefore, key to vet vessel clearances prior to committing to any charter agreement.

 

Estimated carrying capacity is a function of draft and deadweight tonnage (DWT). A guideline summary of each class vessel is listed below.

 


 

Cargo segregation

 

For refiners with tank limitations and or loading constraints, cargo segregation can add flexibility in optimizing fit for purpose movements. Also, certain charter agreements allow charterer to operate tanker or barge to move a mix of clean and dirty products. Always ask about the last 3 cargoes loaded prior to chartering to not risk product contamination or save on tank cleaning costs and time.

 

 

Define Your Costs   

 

Understand Freight Rate & Demurrage

 

What is Freight Rate?

 

The freight rate of a tanker charter party is presented in one of four ways:

 
  • Lump sum rate – Fixed price for delivery of cargo
  • Rate per ton
  • Time charter equivalent rate
  • Worldscale rate – Market rate based on trade routes

 

In more relatable terms, freight rate covers three major vessel cost categories:  voyage costs, capital costs and operational costs. The charter party specifies whether ship owner or charterer bears each cost.

 

 
  • Voyage Costs  =  Fuel  +  Port charges
  • Capital costs  =  Vessel purchase cost
  • Operational Costs  =  Crew  +  Maintenance & Repair  + Insurance  +  Overhead

 

What Influences Freight Rate?

 

Jones Act

Both Capital and Operational costs are generally impacted by flag or registry for non US-trading ships. Noteworthy to our US refiners, is Jones Act, a United States federal statute that requires US flag ship to move all goods between US ports. This requirement has raised the cost of US shipping relative to its non-US flag ships by 2 - 3 times over the recent years.

 

Market Availability

With a constantly changing global crude oil supply and demand along with more stringent regulations and emission standards, the tanker market is highly volatile. More and more ship owners are monitoring market trends and positioning tankers in favor of locations with maximum backhaul opportunities to help reduce cost. Therefore, spot market availability can become a challenge and refiners need to balance spot vs. term charter decisions carefully.

 

Relationships Matter

Consolidators, customs brokers, freight forwarders, and NVOCC’s can be a factor in determining freight rate because of their experience, business relationships, and the volume at which they operate. These factors can help keep freight rate down.

 

What is Demurrage? 

 

Demurrage is additional cost to charterer if loading or discharge of goods exceeds that of agreed chartered time window.  Demurrage rate is typically defined on a dollar per day basis in the charter party. Though demurrage fees cannot be expected to disappear, it is sometimes used as a benchmark to assess supply chain deficiencies.

 

 

Vessel shipping costs will easily cost refiners Tens to Hundreds of Millions of dollars a year. By increasing the fluency of marine management, refiners can maximize wharf utilization, increase revenue generation, and perhaps provide supply to new markets.  

 
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  • Product shipper :   Well done. Port/Agency fees for each vessel are substantial. Cargo Survey and inspection. (Comes with costs) But the most important aspect that I don't see any mention is safety.

    Jan 11, 2017

  • Simon jacques :   For Demurrage, May I suggest to read Laytime, Demurrage/Despatch for the commodity trader. https://jacquessimon506.wordpress.com/2013/11/02/laytime-demurragedespatch-for-the-commodity-trader/

    Jan 12, 2017

  • Simon jacques :   For the Jones Act, A key point is that these rates fluctuate with the ebbs and flow in the market but the Jones Act is not the same flow than Non-U.S ships. Jones Act provides the rights and the optionality to ship from U.S origin to a U.S destination. U.S Freight and Energy Markets, Debunking the Myths and fairy Tales on the Jones Act. https://jacquessimon506.wordpress.com/2016/05/04/18228/

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    Mar 06, 2021

  • Sophia Lucas :   How I Got My Ex Husband Back. Am so excited, All Thanks goes to Dr Prince i was married to my husband, and we were living fine and happy. it come to an extend that my husband that use to love and care for me, doesn't have my time again, until i fined at that he was having an affair with another woman, I tried to stop him all my effort was in-vain suddenly he divorce me and went for the woman. he live me with two of our kids, I cried all day, I was in pains, sorrow and looking for help. I read a comment on how Dr Prince helped a lady to brought her husband back, after 2yrs , He helped people with his Magic spell love and reuniting spell. so I decided to contact him and explain my problems to him, he did a love spell that made my husband to come back to me and never think of the woman. this man is God sent to restore heart break and reunite relationship. may the lord be your strength and continue to use you to save people relationship and any problems contact him for help on princemagicspell@yahoo.com You can also contact him through his WhatsApp +19492293867. Contact him now for love spell to bring back your ex lover he is the best spell caster and he is the best solution to all relationship problems…

    Mar 06, 2021

  • Faithlawrence :   Do you know that there is a great herbal doctor who can cure any deadly disease like herpes, hiv/aids, cancer, syphilis, madness, hepatitis b, STD e.t.c. well my main purpose of writing this to the whole world is about the great deeds DR ODOMA  did for me. I was diagnosed with a deadly disease called HIV/AIDS in 2006, ever since then I have been taking medications on till i met a great herbal doctor. Although I never believed in Herb medicine, I saw many testimonies on how he cured so many people and I decided to contact him. so i contacted him through his email, he gave me a form to fill, i filled it and sent it back to him and then he told me that he would require some items to prepare a herbal medicine for me. i didn't know where to find the items, and he told me that the only alternative is to help me get the items and he helped me purchase the items from the items seller. i promised myself to do anything to get cured, so i sent him the money and he prepared a medicine for me and he told me how i will be taking it. He asked me to have faith and believed in him which I did, 7 days later he asked me to go for a check-up, when I did the check-up I was tested for HIV Negative. All thanks to DR ODOMA. If you are passing through suffering and hardship and you need a way out , I advise you kindly contact him via his email on    drodomasolutionhome20@gmail.com  . You can also WhatsApp +2348100649947He is a specialist in all kinds of sickness and he can bring your EX back with his great spell. CURES,CASTING SPELL HIV/AIDS,PENIS ENLARGEMENT MANHOOD CANCER, HERPES, HEPATITIS B AND C, HERB FOR PREGNANCY, PROTECTION, EX BACK, GOOD LUCK, PROMOTION, ETC. EMAIL: drodomasolutionhome20@gmail.com or whatsapp +2348100649947

    Mar 10, 2021

  • Sonia Stlot :   I can still remember my pain of marriage when my husband left me, Dr Winner SPELL TEMPLE brought back my lover in just 2days, I just want to say thank you for the spell and we are expecting our first child. If you are having any marital issues, please try and reach Dr Winner SPELL TEMPLE his email: Winnersspellcast@gmail.com or view his website:https://winnersspellcast.blogspot.com or WhatsApp number: +2348138289852

    Mar 16, 2021

  • Luna Oliver :   HOW I GOT CURED FROM HERPES VIRUS: I was diagnosed of herpes virus, I have tried all possible means to get cure but all my effort proved abortive, until a friend of mine introduced me to a herbal doctor called Dr padman , who prepare herbal medicine to cure all kind of diseases including herpes virus (Herpes), when i received the herbal medicine he gave me step by step instructions on how to apply it, when i applied it as instructed i was totally cured from the virus within few weeks of usage, I will advice you to apply for the herbal cure if you have the same problem as i had. Contact this great herbal doctor today to get your cure Via Email: padmanherbalcure@yahoo.com Or WhastApp him on +19492293867 His Website: http://padmanspell.com/

    Mar 19, 2021

  • Lisejorge :   I Am so grateful i promise to share this testimony all over the world once my Husband returns back to me, and today with all due respect I want to thank DR. AYOOLA for bringing joy and happiness to my Home and my family. I want to inform you all that there is a spell caster that is real and genuine. I never believed in any of these things until I lost my husband, I required help until I found a great spell caster, And he cast a love spell for me, and he assured me that I will get my Husband back in 24 hours after the spell has been cast. after 24 hours, my phone rang, and so shockingly, it was my husband who has not called me for the past 3 years now, and made an apology for the heart break, and told me that he is ready to be my backbone till the rest of his life with me. DR. AYOOLA released him to know how much I loved and wanted him. And opened his eyes to picture how much we have shared together. As I`m writing this testimony right now I`m the happiest woman on earth and me and my husband are living a happy life and our love is now stronger than how it was even before our break up. So that`s why I promised to share my testimony all over the universe. All thanks goes to DR. AYOOLA for the excessive work that he has done for me. Below is the email address in any situation you are undergoing, it may be a heart break, and I assure you that as he has done mine for me And also done it for so may people out there, he will definitely help you too. contact him email. drayoolasolutionhome@gmail.com He is the best spell caster that can help you with your problems or call him on whatsapp +31684065675 or website https://drayoolasolutionhome.com/

    Mar 20, 2021

  • CholeRobin :   I am so happy my broken Marriage has been restored and my Husband is back after a breakup that lead to fight, After 2 years of marriage Dr PADMAN brought a smile to my face again. I am very happy today with my family. My husband left me for a good 6 months , and i love him so much, i have been looking for a way to get him back since then. i have tried many options but he didn't come back home , until i met a friend that introduced me to Dr.Padman https://padmanspell.com a spell caster, who helped me to restored my marriage back again Me and my husband are living happily together today, I believed Dr Padman so much today i am glad to let the world know that this spell caster have the power to bring lovers back, because i am now happy with my husband. Dr padman is a great spell caster , you can contact him via padmanlovespell@yahoo.com Now i will advice any serious persons that found themselves in this kind of problem, You can contact him Via his email padmanlovespell@yahoo.com or add him on WhatsApp with his WhatsApp +19492293867 Website: https://padmanspell.com

    Mar 23, 2021

  • Synder :   I read some of DR padman testimonies about how he helped many people bring back their lovers in 3 days with a love spell. I was having problem with my boyfriend so I decided to contact him because I love my boyfriend so much. he left home and said he is not interested in the relationship anymore for no reason, i was in shock. I contacted DR Padman and he told me that my boyfriend would come back to me in the next 3 days, DR padman made a love spell and this made my boyfriend eye open to see how much we love each other and he came back home. As I write this testimony, I am the happiest girl on earth. my boyfriend and I are living a happy life and our love is now stronger than it was before we broke up. All thanks to DR padman for the excessive work he did for me, helping me get back with my boyfriend. if you are facing any relationship problem and want a quick solution contact DR Padman on Email: padmanlovespell@yahoo.com WhatsApp +19492293867

    Mar 26, 2021

  • RachaelMildred :   EFFECTIVE LOVE SPELL TO GET EX HUSBAND/BOYFRIEND OR EX WIFE/GIRLFRIEND AND CURE HERPES AND INFERTILITY THAT WORKS WITHIN 24 HOURS.  Contact Dr. Odunga at odungaspelltemple@gmail.com OR Whats App/CALL +2348167159012 I got my ex husband back to me and also got fertile and gave birth to twin girls after 12 years of marriage. When I came online last year, I saw a testimony about Doctor ODUNGA and how he has been helping people with marriage issues and I decided to contact him. We spoke on email at odungaspelltemple@gmail.com and later he gave me his WhatsApp number which is +2348167159012. He assured me he would help me get my ex husband back after 3 years of no contact. Doctor Odunga is the best spell caster I must say. My husband called me after 24 hours of contact. The third day, I received natural herbs for fertility and after using it, I became fertile and conceived. I and my husband reconnected, had sex and I was pregnant. Presently I am happy to say I am the mother of twin girls and this is ALL THANKS TO DOCTOR ODUNGA. I came online to say this If you need help, I believe you are saved with this man. Contact his email at odungaspelltemple@gmail.com  OR Whats App/Call +2348167159012 and you too will give a testimony too to help others

    Mar 26, 2021

  • BLANK ATM CARD :   GET RICH WITH BLANK ATM CARD ... Whatsapp: +18033921735 I want to testify about Dark Web blank atm cards which can withdraw money from any atm machines around the world. I was very poor before and have no job. I saw so many testimony about how Dark Web hackers send them the atm blank card and use it to collect money in any atm machine and become rich. ( darkwebblankatmcard@gmail.com ) I email them also and they sent me the blank atm card. I have use it to get 90,000 dollars. withdraw the maximum of 5,000 USD daily. Dark Web is giving out the card just to help the poor. Hack and take money directly from any atm machine vault with the use of atm programmed card which runs in automatic mode. Email: darkwebblankatmcard@gmail.com Text & Call or WhatsApp: +18033921735

    Mar 29, 2021

  • BLANK ATM CARD :   GET RICH WITH BLANK ATM CARD ... Whatsapp: +18033921735 I want to testify about Dark Web blank atm cards which can withdraw money from any atm machines around the world. I was very poor before and have no job. I saw so many testimony about how Dark Web hackers send them the atm blank card and use it to collect money in any atm machine and become rich. ( darkwebblankatmcard@gmail.com ) I email them also and they sent me the blank atm card. I have use it to get 90,000 dollars. withdraw the maximum of 5,000 USD daily. Dark Web is giving out the card just to help the poor. Hack and take money directly from any atm machine vault with the use of atm programmed card which runs in automatic mode. Email: darkwebblankatmcard@gmail.com Text & Call or WhatsApp: +18033921735

    Mar 29, 2021

  • BLANK ATM CARD :   GET RICH WITH BLANK ATM CARD ... Whatsapp: +18033921735 I want to testify about Dark Web blank atm cards which can withdraw money from any atm machines around the world. I was very poor before and have no job. I saw so many testimony about how Dark Web hackers send them the atm blank card and use it to collect money in any atm machine and become rich. ( darkwebblankatmcard@gmail.com ) I email them also and they sent me the blank atm card. I have use it to get 90,000 dollars. withdraw the maximum of 5,000 USD daily. Dark Web is giving out the card just to help the poor. Hack and take money directly from any atm machine vault with the use of atm programmed card which runs in automatic mode. Email: darkwebblankatmcard@gmail.com Text & Call or WhatsApp: +18033921735

    Mar 29, 2021

  • BLANK ATM CARD :   GET RICH WITH BLANK ATM CARD ... Whatsapp: +18033921735 I want to testify about Dark Web blank atm cards which can withdraw money from any atm machines around the world. I was very poor before and have no job. I saw so many testimony about how Dark Web hackers send them the atm blank card and use it to collect money in any atm machine and become rich. ( darkwebblankatmcard@gmail.com ) I email them also and they sent me the blank atm card. I have use it to get 90,000 dollars. withdraw the maximum of 5,000 USD daily. Dark Web is giving out the card just to help the poor. Hack and take money directly from any atm machine vault with the use of atm programmed card which runs in automatic mode. Email: darkwebblankatmcard@gmail.com Text & Call or WhatsApp: +18033921735

    Mar 29, 2021

  • BLANK ATM CARD :   GET RICH WITH BLANK ATM CARD ... Whatsapp: +18033921735 I want to testify about Dark Web blank atm cards which can withdraw money from any atm machines around the world. I was very poor before and have no job. I saw so many testimony about how Dark Web hackers send them the atm blank card and use it to collect money in any atm machine and become rich. ( darkwebblankatmcard@gmail.com ) I email them also and they sent me the blank atm card. I have use it to get 90,000 dollars. withdraw the maximum of 5,000 USD daily. Dark Web is giving out the card just to help the poor. Hack and take money directly from any atm machine vault with the use of atm programmed card which runs in automatic mode. Email: darkwebblankatmcard@gmail.com Text & Call or WhatsApp: +18033921735

    Mar 29, 2021

  • Clara666 :   My name is Clara I am here to make a review about how Dr Charles helped me in fixing my marriage and also to those out there seeking for help and advice on how to save your broken marriage or relationship, few months ago I was having issues with my husband I noticed he has been having an affair with another young lady in his place of work I confronted him but he got angry and say to my face that it’s true, as if that was not enough he went ahead by telling me he doesn’t love me anymore that he wanted a divorce I was to devastated and confused, I pleaded with him that I don’t want a divorce but he insisted,before then I had heard about Dr Charles while browsing on the internet how he use to help people with broken marriages and relationships, I gave it a thought and I decided to contact him, he promise to put a smile on my face again, I followed his instructions and after 3days I was so surprised to see my husband kneeling before me and apologizing for what he had said about the divorce, this is something I never expected, I thank Dr Charle for what he has done for me, now am living happily with my husband and he has stopped seeing the other woman. Please if you are having issues like this I advice you to contact Dr Charles he can help you as well drcharlesspeltemple@gmail.com website: https://drcharlesspeltempl.wixsite.com/info WhatsApp: +2348146708557

    Mar 31, 2021

  • MaggieB :   I want to testify to the glory of Lord Masuka, the spell caster that helped me restored my marriage. It all started when my husband came back home acting weird for no reason, I tried to find out what was going on but he refused talking to me for days, he woke up one morning telling me that he need a break and he left without any clue where he's going on, I was so shocked and devastated because I have done nothing wrong to him rather than being a supporting wife, I cried all day, one fateful evening I saw series of comments on how Lord Masuka had restored collapsed marriage, so I decided to give him a try. He assured me that all hope are not lost yet, I followed the instructions he gave me, to my greatest surprise my husband who had left me for months without a call came to my work place and begged for forgiveness, now we are happy family because of Lord Masuka. To as many of you having issues in your relationship, marriages Lord Masuka is the answer to your problem, contact him today via email lordmasukaspelltemple@hotmail.com or WhatsApp him +1(234)-307-0752. You can also visit his website for more info https://lordmasukaspelltem3.wixsite.com/masuka?

    Mar 31, 2021

  • ELIZABETH ROMERO :   How I Got My Husband Back.......... THE BEST WAY TO Win And Get Your Ex HUSBAND WITH THE HELP OF PROPHET OYINBO POWERFUL AND URGENT LOVE SPELL WITH 100% GUARANTEE My husband abandon me for the the past months now, and refuse to come back because he was hold on by a woman whom he just met, for that, i has been suffering and it has been heel of a struggle, but I decide to do all means to make sure that my husband and i come back together as it use to, then I went online there I saw so many good talk about this spell caster whose email is prophetoyinbojesus@gmail.com so I had to contact him and explain my problem to him and in just 48 hours as he has promised, my husband came home and his behavior was back to the man i got married to. I cant thank the spell caster enough for what he did for me, i am so grateful and i will never stop to publish his name on the internet for the good work he has done for me,once again his email him direct..prophetoyinbojesus@gmail.com or Call/WhatsApp:+2348074066640

    Mar 31, 2021

  • MaggieB :   I want to testify to the glory of Lord Masuka, the spell caster that helped me restored my marriage. It all started when my husband came back home acting weird for no reason, I tried to find out what was going on but he refused talking to me for days, he woke up one morning telling me that he need a break and he left without any clue where he's going on, I was so shocked and devastated because I have done nothing wrong to him rather than being a supporting wife, I cried all day, one fateful evening I saw series of comments on how Lord Masuka had restored collapsed marriage, so I decided to give him a try. He assured me that all hope are not lost yet, I followed the instructions he gave me, to my greatest surprise my husband who had left me for months without a call came to my work place and begged for forgiveness, now we are happy family because of Lord Masuka. To as many of you having issues in your relationship, marriages Lord Masuka is the answer to your problem, contact him today via email lordmasukaspelltemple@hotmail.com or WhatsApp him +1(234)-307-0752. You can also visit his website for more info https://lordmasukaspelltem3.wixsite.com/masuka?

    Mar 31, 2021

  • MaggieB :   I want to testify to the glory of Lord Masuka, the spell caster that helped me restored my marriage. It all started when my husband came back home acting weird for no reason, I tried to find out what was going on but he refused talking to me for days, he woke up one morning telling me that he need a break and he left without any clue where he's going on, I was so shocked and devastated because I have done nothing wrong to him rather than being a supporting wife, I cried all day, one fateful evening I saw series of comments on how Lord Masuka had restored collapsed marriage, so I decided to give him a try. He assured me that all hope are not lost yet, I followed the instructions he gave me, to my greatest surprise my husband who had left me for months without a call came to my work place and begged for forgiveness, now we are happy family because of Lord Masuka. To as many of you having issues in your relationship, marriages Lord Masuka is the answer to your problem, contact him today via email lordmasukaspelltemple@hotmail.com or WhatsApp him +1(234)-307-0752. You can also visit his website for more info https://lordmasukaspelltem3.wixsite.com/masuka?

    Mar 31, 2021

  • Donnajenny0 :   HELLO EVERYONE.Natural herbs have cured so many illness that drugs and injection cant cure. I''ve seen the great importance of natural herbs and the wonderful work they have done in people lives. i read testimonies online how they were cured of herpes, HIV, diabetics, cancer etc by Dr. Sayo herbal medicine, so i decided to contact him because i know nature has the power to heal anything. I was diagnosed with herpes for the past 9 months but Dr.Sayo cured me with his herbs and i referred my aunt and her husband to him immediately because they were both suffering from cancer but they were cured too. Contact Dr. Sayo via email on: sayoherbalhealer@gmail.com Or Whatsapp him on: +2349012175679 You can also visit his FB page: https://www.facebook.com/Sayo-Herbal-Healer-100145798345000/ check his website: sayoherbalhome.com

    Apr 02, 2021

  • Jessica smith :   After being in relationship with Wilson for seven years,he broke up with me, I did everything possible to bring him back but all was in vain, I wanted him back so much because of the love I have for him, I begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I explained my problem to someone online and she suggested that I should contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back but I am the type that don’t believed in spell, I had no choice than to try it, I meant a spell caster called Dr Zuma zuk and I email him, and he told me there was no problem that everything will be okay before three days, that my ex will return to me before three days, he cast the spell and surprisingly in the second day, it was around 4pm. My ex called me, I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that happened, that he wanted me to return to him, that he loves me so much. I was so happy and went to him, that was how we started living together happily again. Since then, I have made promise that anybody I know that have a relationship problem, I would be of help to such person by referring him or her to the only real and powerful spell caster who helped me with my own problem and who is different from all the fake ones out there. Anybody could need the help of the spell caster, his email: spiritualherbalisthealing@gmail.com or WhatsApp him +15068001647 you can email him if you need his assistance in your relationship or anything. CONTACT HIM NOW FOR SOLUTION TO ALL YOUR PROBLEMS

    Apr 03, 2021

  • Olivia Hannah :   Hi everyone I'm Olivia Hannah and am here to share the wonderful work Dr Raypower did for me. After 5 years in marriage with my husband with 2 kids, my husband started acting weird and going out with other ladies and showed me cold love, on several occasions he threatens to divorce me if I dare question him about his affair with other ladies, I was totally devastated and confused until a old friend of mine told me about a spell caster on the internet called Dr. Raypower who help people with relationship and marriage problem by the powers of love spells, at first I doubted if such thing ever exists but decided to give it a try, when I contact him, he helped me cast a love spell and within 48hours my husband came back to me and started apologizing, now he has stopped going out with other ladies and his with me for good and for real. Contact this great love spell caster for your relationship or marriage problem to be solved today via email: Urgentspellcast@gmail.com or Urgentspellcast@yahoo.com or WhatsApp: +14243308109. Read more about him on his website: https://urgentspellcast.wordpress.com/

    Apr 03, 2021

  • Prof Ibrahim :   If you want a spell that is solely about getting your lover back in your arms, this spell has significant energy just to do that for your love life. This spell has the ability to influence your lover to come home no matter what forces are keeping them away. Using my magical native lost love spells, I can bring back your ex-husband or ex-wife to you, if you still love them and want them back. Even if they have remarried my lost love spells will bring them back and they will love you once again. By requesting this spell; the lost love of your life could be back on their way to you now. This spell does not force love between partners. It works when there is genuine love between the two but for some unforeseen circumstance, you are now apart. I cast these advanced spells to bring back lost love where i use the supernatural power and forces to reconnect you with one specific person you want back in your existence. Bring back your ex boyfriend friend & make them commit to a relationship with you again using bring back lost love spells that will help ex lost lovers forgive each other. Losing your loved one sometimes can be inevitable but the process of getting your ex love back to you can be extremely very hard. However, that doesn’t mean that you cannot win your ex back any faster. Getting people to understand each other and create the unbreakable bond is the true work of love spells.Love spells are magically cast with the divine power to make the faded love to re-germinate with the intensive love power to overcome all the challenges. My effective bring back lost love spells are powerful within 24 hours. Dropping someone you adore is like breaking your heart in two pieces, especially when you are deeply in love with that character. Love is an vital emotion and has power to do the entirety glad and quality, however there comes a time whilst humans are deserted via their loved ones and are deceived, lied, wronged and blamed. Bring back your ex girl friend & make them commit to a relationship with you again using bring back lost love spells to make fall back in love with you. Make your ex husband to get back with you using bring back lost love spells to make your ex husband to fall back in love with you & commit to marriage & with you again.Ex husband fall in love spells, ex boyfriend fall back in love with you love spells, ex husband commitment love spells, marriage lost love spells & relationship lost love spells.Bring back lost love spells to help ex lover resolve past difference & forgive each other for past mistakes. Capture his heart & make him yours using love spells. Tel: +27785149508 / Email:profibrahim98@gmail.com http://www.africanancientspells.com

    Apr 07, 2021

  • Prof Ibrahim :   Lottery gambling spells to win lots of money at the lotto jackpot. Get the lotto winning numbers using lottery winning spells to increase your chances of winning. Attract good luck when gambling, increase your chances of winning & enhance your psychic powers when gambling using my good luck lottery winning spells that work. Lottery spells to change your luck at the lottery; lottery luck spells to change your mathematical mindset using numerology to predict accurately the lotto winning numbers. Good luck lotto spells to change your spiritual mindset to make it possible for you to win million in the lottery. Unlimited winnings using good luck lotto spells. If you want a gambling spell to neutralize and cancel out any spells and hexes against your gambling success, then get one of my powerful gambling rival gambling spell. Lotto spells that work to draw money towards you when playing the lottery. Stop losing money and make millions from the lottery with lotto spells that work fast. Choose this lotto money spell to receive a large sum of money at the lottery or make someone else receive a large sum of money at the lottery. Win bigger prizes from the lotto with lottery spells that will work in any country. Learn how to increase your chances of winning the lottery with lotto spells. This lotto spell advantage is priceless when playing lotto or gambling as the lottery spells that work fast will work to bring luck, positive energy and winnings. Lottery spells to change your luck at the lottery, lottery luck spells to change your mathematical mindset using numerology to predict accurately the lotto winning numbers and lotto spells that work to change your spiritual mindset to make it possible for you to win million in the lottery. Lottery spells, sports betting spells, horse betting spells, casino money spells, spells to win the lottery jackpot & gambling spells. Get large sums of money at the lottery with lottery luck spells. Draw money towards you when gambling at the casino with casino gambling spells. Bring the odds of winning in your favor with gambling spells for luck & positive energy. Lotto spells to win the lottery by increasing your psychic powers. Tel: +27785149508 / Email:profibrahim98@gmail.com http://www.africanancientspells.com http://www.africanancientspells.com

    Apr 07, 2021

  • Prof Ibrahim :   Are you in need of a revenge spell? Do you want the person that has harmed you get what they deserve? My voodoo revenge spells will do just that. Cast it to punish your enemies with misfortune, curses, hexes & bad luck in their lives. Can be specific or general depending on the outcome you want. My spells exact suffering on a person who has genuinely caused you to suffer or has caused you to lose something you hold dear. Ruin someone else’s life with misfortune revenge spells that will wreck havoc in the life of your enemy or rival. Cause someone to have bad luck with love, money or business with my powerful misfortune revenge spells. Whatever a person tries to do after this spell will not prosper for a fixed period of time. Has someone taken away your lover? Did your ex-lover treat so bad & cause suffering in your life then dump you for no apparent reason? Did a love rival breakup your marriage or relationship? Did someone curse your love life giving you a string of bad relationships & marriages? My powerful love revenge spells will give you revenge against a specific person who has caused suffering in your love life. Revenge spells to punish someone until you are fully avenged. Revenge spells to teach someone a lesson they will never forget using voodoo revenge spells. My spells of revenge will inflict serious harm on your enemies, so do not use my revenge spells unless you are sure. Revenge spells for cheaters & your enemies. Revenge spells and curses to help you get the ultimate revenge. Voodoo revenge spells for cheaters, ex lovers, your enemies & people who want to harm you. Give life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot & to punish your enemies with revenge curses & spells for revenge. If someone has truly wronged you and you want to get back on them with the ultimate revenge spell, then try this witchcraft death revenge spells. The most precious asset we have is life so the death revenge spell is by far the most powerful revenge spell in the world as it will lead to the death. I only cast the death revenge spell when you have given me all the proof that the person you want to cast upon deserves death as punishment. Spells for revenge to cause your enemy to have sleepless nights & frightening dreams. Banish bad dreams & nightmares if someone has cast bad dreams revenge spells. : +27785149508 EMAIL:profibrahim98@gmail.com http://www.africanancientspells.com http://www.africanancientspells.com

    Apr 07, 2021

  • Abdul Baseer :   Love Spells Magic to help you understand your relationship problems, find your soul mate and make them fall in love with you with the help of Abdul Basser®. Save your marriage from divorce & make your relationship stronger, fix trust issues & misunderstandings between two lovers and get back lost lover in just 48hrs. Love spells to reverse a breakup & save your relationship. Lost love spells to get your ex lost lover back permanently & bring back lost love. Heal relationship problems using love spells to increase love between two people. Love spells to banish intimacy & communication problems in your relationship. Love spells to make someone fall in love with you, attract a new lover, stop your partner from cheating on you & love spells to prevent a divorce. Lost love spells to permanently get your ex husband back or ex wife back. Lost love spells to permanently get your ex boyfriend or ex girlfriend back. Love spells chants to strengthen a relationship. Chant these spiritually endowed words & wipe away your relationship & marriage problems. Love spells chants to help you find love; make someone fall in love with you & get your ex back. watsapp +27717403094 / , Email basserabdul59@gmail.com ,visit, www.africanspellscaster.co.za >https://www.africanspellscaster.co.za

    Apr 07, 2021

  • Abdul Baseer :   Lotto spells that work to draw money towards you when playing the lottery. Stop losing money and make millions from the lottery with lotto spells that work fast. Choose this lotto money spell to receive a large sum of money at the lottery or make someone else receive a large sum of money at the lottery. Win bigger prizes from the lotto with lottery spells that will work in any country. Learn how to increase your chances of winning the lottery with lotto spells. This lotto spell advantage is priceless when playing lotto or gambling as the lottery spells that work fast will work to bring luck, positive energy and winnings. Lottery spells to change your luck at the lottery, lottery luck spells to change your mathematical mindset. +27717403094,email,basserabdul59@Money spells that will increase your wealth, money spells to help you get more money and money spells to solve all your financial problems. I have access to the supernatural world & can use my divination powers to change your money fortunes and set you to a path of bountifulness and no lack. Be financially secure happy and deliciously rich with all the material wealth that money can buy with my money spells. I have helped many powerful businessmen make big decisions that brought them large amounts of money by the use of powerful money spells. Money spells can create wealth. Money spells are safe and ethical to use if used for the right purposes. Money spells should not be used incorrectly or to create harm. I have much experience with potent money spells to being your business money. Powerful money spells to gain more money. Let success & prosperity flow into your life using money spells to attract wealth & increase your luck with money. Get off the poverty road and onto the path of prosperity now. If money has been tight and things haven’t been going very well financially, this is just the money spell you’ve been looking for. With this money spell several things begin happening simultaneously, you may find money in unexpected places, you may get sudden and unexpected creative money-making ideas, and people may start presenting you with money-making opportunities. This spell also seems to have a cumulative or snowball effect, the more you take advantage of and act on the opportunities that come up, the more opportunities present themselves. Money spells to attract money, success & help you become rich. Turn your idea or business into gold using powerful money spells. Pay all your debts, win the lotto and experience luck when gambling at the casino using money spells, lottery money spells, casino spells & business money spells. Spiritual rats for money, short boy spirits for money, magic wallet spells, lottery money spells, business spells & casino winning spells. Powerful money spells to help you get money, get a job, get a loan, increase business and achieve financial success. .Contact +27717403094,email,basserabdul59@gmail.com ,Visit ,www.africanspellscaster.co.za , https://moneyspells4.blogspot.com/gmail.com ,Visit ,www.africanspellscaster.co.za , https://moneyspells4.blogspot.com/

    Apr 07, 2021

  • Abdul Baseer :   Are you in need of a revenge spell? Do you want the person that has harmed you get what they deserve? My voodoo revenge spells will do just that. Cast it to punish your enemies with misfortune, curses, hexes & bad luck in their lives. Can be specific or general depending on the outcome you want. My spells exact suffering on a person who has genuinely caused you to suffer or has caused you to lose something you hold dear. Watsapp +27717403094 / https://www.africanspellscaster.co.za

    Apr 07, 2021

  • Diamond Green :   Love never gives up, never loses faith, is always hopeful, and endures through every circumstances. I give God all the glory for bringing Lord Zakuza into my life for helping me get my wife back that got me divorced for one year. I was the last person on earth to accept the fact that spells exist or work not until I was referred to Lord Zakuza online to who has helped so many people with his powerful spells. I had no other option than to give it a try because 3 months after the divorce, I was demoted at my place of work due to depression for I don't know what to do to get her back but thank God today for using Lord Zakuza to get my happiness and love life back within 48 hours. Just last week here, I was promoted back to my position and I'm here to share my own experience with this man called Lord Zakuza. I don't know what you are going through today but know that in all situation there's always a way out. Lord Zakuza also prepares spells like Lottery spell, job spell, spell to stop a divorce, spell cure for any diseases, protection spell, spell to become successful and wealthy E.T.C. Contact him now for any help via TEXT OR WHATSAPP MESSENGER with: +1 740-573-9483 and Email on: Lordzakuza7@gmail.com

    Apr 08, 2021

  • Ashley :   My names are Ashley Vivian, Am here to share a testimony on how Dr Raypower helped me. After a 1/5 year relationship with my boyfriend, he changed suddenly and stopped contacting me regularly, he would come up with excuses of not seeing me all the time. He stopped answering my calls and my sms and he stopped seeing me regularly. I then started catching him with different girls several times but every time he would say that he loved me and that he needed some time to think about our relationship. But I couldn't stop thinking about him so I decided to go online and I saw so many good talks about this spell caster called Dr Raypower and I contacted him and explained my problems to him. He cast a love spell for me which i use and after 24 hours, my boyfriend came back to me and started contacting me regularly and we moved in together after a few months and he was more open to me than before and he started spending more time with me than his friends. We eventually got married and we now have been married happily for 3 years with a son. Ever since Dr Raypower helped me, my partner is very stable, faithful and closer to me than before. You can also contact this spell caster and get your relationship fix Email: urgentspellcast@gmail.com or urgentspellcast@yahoo.com see more reviews about him on his website: https://urgentspellcast.wordpress.com/ WhatsApp: +1 (424) 330-8109

    Apr 10, 2021

  • Diamond Green :   Love never gives up, never loses faith, is always hopeful, and endures through every circumstances. I give God all the glory for bringing Lord Zakuza into my life for helping me get my wife back that got me divorced for one year. I was the last person on earth to accept the fact that spells exist or work not until I was referred to Lord Zakuza online to who has helped so many people with his powerful spells. I had no other option than to give it a try because 3 months after the divorce, I was demoted at my place of work due to depression for I don't know what to do to get her back but thank God today for using Lord Zakuza to get my happiness and love life back within 48 hours. Just last week here, I was promoted back to my position and I'm here to share my own experience with this man called Lord Zakuza. I don't know what you are going through today but know that in all situation there's always a way out. Lord Zakuza also prepares spells like Lottery spell, job spell, spell to stop a divorce, spell cure for any diseases, protection spell, spell to become successful and wealthy E.T.C. Contact him now for any help via TEXT OR WHATSAPP MESSENGER with: +1 740-573-9483 and Email on: Lordzakuza7@gmail.com

    Apr 12, 2021

  • COOK BRENDY :   HOW I GOT MY HUSBAND BACK WITH THE HELP OF DR.IFADE CONTACT ON WHATS_APP NUMBER +1(551)333-5249. OR HIS EMAIL  ifadesolutionspell31@gmail.comThis is my testimony about the good work of Dr,Ifade who helped me…. I’m Las Vagas, USA. And am sorry for putting this on net but i will have to, by this world best spell caster that brought back my husband who left me out for past 2 years, i eventually me this man on a blog site posting by one of is client for help, i explained everything to him and he told me about a spell caster that he had heard about and he gave me an email address to write to the spell caster to tell him my problems. In just 1 days, my husband was back to me. I just want to say thank you to this truthful and sincere spell caster, sir all you told me have come to pass and thank you sir. Please I want to tell everyone who is looking for any solution to their problem, I advise you to kindly consult this spell caster, he is real,he is powerful and whatever the spell caster tells is what will happen, because all what the spell caster told me came to pass. You can kindly contact him on his email address  ifadesolutionspell31@gmail.com or directly on whats-app +1(551)333-5249.

    Apr 17, 2021

  • COOK BRENDY :   vHOW I GOT MY HUSBAND BACK WITH THE HELP OF DR.IFADE CONTACT ON WHATS_APP NUMBER +1(551)333-5249. OR HIS EMAIL  ifadesolutionspell31@gmail.comThis is my testimony about the good work of Dr,Ifade who helped me…. I’m Las Vagas, USA. And am sorry for putting this on net but i will have to, by this world best spell caster that brought back my husband who left me out for past 2 years, i eventually me this man on a blog site posting by one of is client for help, i explained everything to him and he told me about a spell caster that he had heard about and he gave me an email address to write to the spell caster to tell him my problems. In just 1 days, my husband was back to me. I just want to say thank you to this truthful and sincere spell caster, sir all you told me have come to pass and thank you sir. Please I want to tell everyone who is looking for any solution to their problem, I advise you to kindly consult this spell caster, he is real,he is powerful and whatever the spell caster tells is what will happen, because all what the spell caster told me came to pass. You can kindly contact him on his email address  ifadesolutionspell31@gmail.com or directly on whats-app +1(551)333-5249.

    Apr 17, 2021

  • COOK BRENDY :   HOW I GOT MY HUSBAND BACK WITH THE HELP OF DR.IFADE CONTACT ON WHATS_APP NUMBER +1(551)333-5249. OR HIS EMAIL  ifadesolutionspell31@gmail.comThis is my testimony about the good work of Dr,Ifade who helped me…. I’m Las Vagas, USA. And am sorry for putting this on net but i will have to, by this world best spell caster that brought back my husband who left me out for past 2 years, i eventually me this man on a blog site posting by one of is client for help, i explained everything to him and he told me about a spell caster that he had heard about and he gave me an email address to write to the spell caster to tell him my problems. In just 1 days, my husband was back to me. I just want to say thank you to this truthful and sincere spell caster, sir all you told me have come to pass and thank you sir. Please I want to tell everyone who is looking for any solution to their problem, I advise you to kindly consult this spell caster, he is real,he is powerful and whatever the spell caster tells is what will happen, because all what the spell caster told me came to pass. You can kindly contact him on his email address  ifadesolutionspell31@gmail.com or directly on whats-app +1(551)333-5249.

    Apr 17, 2021

  • COOK BRENDY :   HOW I GOT MY HUSBAND BACK WITH THE HELP OF DR.IFADE CONTACT ON WHATS_APP NUMBER +1(551)333-5249. OR HIS EMAIL  ifadesolutionspell31@gmail.comThis is my testimony about the good work of Dr,Ifade who helped me…. I’m Las Vagas, USA. And am sorry for putting this on net but i will have to, by this world best spell caster that brought back my husband who left me out for past 2 years, i eventually me this man on a blog site posting by one of is client for help, i explained everything to him and he told me about a spell caster that he had heard about and he gave me an email address to write to the spell caster to tell him my problems. In just 1 days, my husband was back to me. I just want to say thank you to this truthful and sincere spell caster, sir all you told me have come to pass and thank you sir. Please I want to tell everyone who is looking for any solution to their problem, I advise you to kindly consult this spell caster, he is real,he is powerful and whatever the spell caster tells is what will happen, because all what the spell caster told me came to pass. You can kindly contact him on his email address  ifadesolutionspell31@gmail.com or directly on whats-app +1(551)333-5249.

    Apr 17, 2021

  • Patricia Donald :   Advice to save your marriage and get your Ex Boyfriend/girlfriend back ,contact ogagaspellcastertemple@gmail.com or WhatsApp +2347059387282 for Urgent effective love Spell to get ex lover back or save you marriage fast and his result is 100% guarantee. I want to give thanks to Dr Ogaga for bringing back my ex husband. No one could have ever made me believe that the letter I’m about to write would actually one day be written. I was the world’s biggest skeptic. I never believed in magic spells or anything like this, but I was told by a reliable source (a very close co-worker) that Trust is a very dedicated, gifted, and talented person, It was one of the best things I have ever done. My love life was in shambles, I had been through two divorces and was on the brink of a third. I just couldn't face another divorce, and I wanted to try harder to make our relationship work, but my husband didn’t seem to care. and he brake up with me again. I was confuse and do not no what to do again, rather them to get in contact with Dr Ogaga . He did a love spell that make my husband come back to me. we are now very much happy with our self. Dr Ogaga make him to realize how much we love and need each other. This man is for REAL and for good, he can also help you to fix your broken relationship. I had my husband back! It was like a miracle! He suddenly wanted to go to marriage counseling, and we’re doing very, very well, in our love life. Contact Dr Ogaga Text & Call or WhatsApp: +2347059387282 Email: ogagaspellcastertemple@gmail.com

    Apr 25, 2021

  • Patricia Donald :   Advice to save your marriage and get your Ex Boyfriend/girlfriend back ,contact ogagaspellcastertemple@gmail.com or WhatsApp +2347059387282 for Urgent effective love Spell to get ex lover back or save you marriage fast and his result is 100% guarantee. I want to give thanks to Dr Ogaga for bringing back my ex husband. No one could have ever made me believe that the letter I’m about to write would actually one day be written. I was the world’s biggest skeptic. I never believed in magic spells or anything like this, but I was told by a reliable source (a very close co-worker) that Trust is a very dedicated, gifted, and talented person, It was one of the best things I have ever done. My love life was in shambles, I had been through two divorces and was on the brink of a third. I just couldn't face another divorce, and I wanted to try harder to make our relationship work, but my husband didn’t seem to care. and he brake up with me again. I was confuse and do not no what to do again, rather them to get in contact with Dr Ogaga . He did a love spell that make my husband come back to me. we are now very much happy with our self. Dr Ogaga make him to realize how much we love and need each other. This man is for REAL and for good, he can also help you to fix your broken relationship. I had my husband back! It was like a miracle! He suddenly wanted to go to marriage counseling, and we’re doing very, very well, in our love life. Contact Dr Ogaga Text & Call or WhatsApp: +2347059387282 Email: ogagaspellcastertemple@gmail.com

    Apr 25, 2021

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